Forecasting fog for landscape photography

Forecasting fog for landscape photography in Tips & Tricks
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One of the essential elements in landscape photography is fog, because it gives a magic mood to every landscape and it is also a good cover up for men-made structures in a landscape, such as streets and small villages in a valley. For most of you, fog is an absolutely upgrade to your landscape pictures. With modern Meteorology, it is possible to forecast fog for two to three days in the future, which means, that you can easily see if a chosen location will be covered in fog or not.

For me, I only go on location when I can expect fog or another weather-phenomenon such as a red sky, clear visible milky-way and so on. With your smartphone in the pocket, it is possible to get weather data via the internet 24/7. But there is much knowledge needed for a correct interpretation of weather forecast models. One of the weather forecast models, which is just perfect for central Europe, is the WRF 4km model you can find on (German) or specially for the USA. When you click on this model, you will see a list of different weather parameters, which a forecasted 72h into the future in steps by 3h.

The 3 parameters for fog forecasting

On every parameter-map you can find an initial date and a validation date. The initial date is just the date when the maps where calculated by the super computer by a weather service, the validation date shows you the date when the map is valid. The time is measured in UTC, which means that every timestamp is calculated by the time zone of Great-Britain and you have to calculate your local time. For example, you have to add +2h to the UTC time to get the central European summer time. 
Most of those parameters are completely uninteresting for you as a photographer and for forecasting fog we just need three parameters:

2 m relative humidity

The relative humidity shows the percental humidity of the air. This means, when the map shows zero, there is no dissolved water in a layer of air 2 m high over the ground. When it shows 50%, the air has reached half of its capacity for dissolved water and when it reaches 100%, the air is full. This means, that no more gasiform water can be dissolved in the air, and therefor fog will occur.

Forecasting fog for landscape photography

Map for the 2 m relative humidity parameter, shown for Germany. The brighter the areas are, the higher the relative humidity with up to 100% for white areas.

10 m wind

This map shows the direction and the speed of the wind within a layer 10 m above the surface, which also respects mountains and valleys. When the wind is strong, obviously no fog can occur. You should make sure that the wind speed doesn’t exceed 20 km/h when the 2 m relative humidity shows 100%, because that's when your chances for fog are pretty high.

Forecasting fog for landscape photography

This map shows the strength of the wind within a layer of 10 m above the surface.

Low clouds

When there is really dense fog, the weather model will forecast the fog as low clouds. So when there is a 2 m relative humidity forecasted of 100% for a location, you can take a look at this map if it shows low clouds at the same place. The special thing with this map is, that you can see mountain peaks rising through the fog when they are taller than the upper boundary. In this example, you can see the fog marked by dotted lines. I've also marked the Taunus mountains, Rhön mountains and the Swabian Alb. You can see the contours of those mountains and by that, you can easily know how high the forecasted fog will be.

Forecasting fog for landscape photography

This map shows the low clouds for Germany. Blue areas right inside the white cloud areas usually show the peaks of mountains, rising through the fog. Situations like this offer a great chance to photograph a valley full of clouds from above, as I did in the next image.

Forecasting fog for landscape photography

Using knowledge about the weather and in this case the fog forecast successfully helped me to get a photo like this one.

Final words

Most of the time, fog will occur in mostly wind- and cloudless nights in valleys. The time to shoot is the time by sunrise because after the sun has risen, the fog will dissolve again while the air is getting hot. For that reason, you have to check the weather maps from at the time by sunrise for the three parameters. But don't forget to calculate what your local time is in UTC time!

Sadly, I can only show you a really small part of the weather forecasts which are possible in landscape and outdoor photography in general. You can buy my book at Rheinwerk Verlag.

Forecasting fog for landscape photography

Bastians book about weather forecasting (currently only available in German), published by the Rheinwerk Verlag.

Comments (11)

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Hugo Santos
Hugo Santos 28.02.2019
That's so nice. I'm from Portugal and I did love to have it translated to English. It's an amazing book with a subject that is very very important for the landscape photographers. Having all this information condensed in a book is like a treasure. Well done Bastian!
Gerhard Rauth
Gerhard Rauth 22.11.2017
Hello Bastian, thanks for this perfect article. I got your book in summer and I enjoyed reading it. On my recent trip to Thailand I even used what I had learned from your book to plan my day trips, even if they were not planed as trips for taking photos. Das Buch ist nur empfehlenswert! Danke auch dafür!
Michael Keil
Michael Keil 10.03.2017
Echt ein super Bericht, habe unbewußt auf so etwas gewartet. Habe direkt dein Buch bestellt, bin sehr gespannt.
Markus Veckenstedt
Markus Veckenstedt 02.03.2017
I like your article a lot and I just found out that offers the website in english as well: However I was not able to find the maps you mentioned on your blog. Cheers M
Kevin Harding
Kevin Harding 25.02.2017
Excellent Bastian ! I've mean meaning to research this subject and it magically appears in my inbox ! Now you just have to have your book translated into English to reach a much wider audience ! Awesome shot by the way. 25.02.2017
Thanks Kevin! Yes I want this badly. I need to talk to my publisher, I could easily translate it to english and just change the maps to US Forecast maps. But lets hope the book gets a good start in Germany, that will make anything more easy.
Arnaud Mariat
Arnaud Mariat 25.02.2017
Those are really not easy to use... Do you know another website that covers the entire world, or at least, other regions that USA ? Wunderground has some maps for Canada, where I live, but not those you're talking about. Instant Weather Maps seems to have a lot a ressources but the interface is awful, I can't find what I'm looking for... Thanks for the tips, to forecast fog can be really useful !
Erik Hebestreit
Erik Hebestreit 02.05.2017
Maybe this is helpful for you:
Arnaud Mariat
Arnaud Mariat 02.05.2017
Wow, thanks ! On the government website, nice... Could be more accurate, North America is a quite large region, but this should be helpful ! 25.02.2017
Awesome resources - great! Thanks!
Andreas Brett
Andreas Brett 20.02.2017
Thanks Bastian! Like your seminar in Darmstadt, this article really helped getting a basic understanding of weather for photographers. Looking forward to next week when your book ends up in my mailbox :) BTW: 20 km/h is about 5.5 m/s. The maps show wind speeds in [m/s]. I know it's simple math (divide by 3.6) but I thought it might help some reader.
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