About the location
There is so much to see in and around the city, that you will need at least around a week for your stay, especially if you don't want to rush everything or just want to see the highlights. The Golden Gate Bridge is obviously a must-see and using the cable cars to get there is highly recommended, since they have their own charm to travel around SF. Although Alcatraz Island is extremely touristic, it's definitely worth a visit for anyone. I would recommend you to book the tickets in advance though, because all the tours to the island are usually booked out pretty fast over a few days before.
Photographers will definitely enjoy the different heights in the city, which makes it very easy to find good perspectives for various themes. Battery Spencer or the general Vista Point at Golden Gate Bridge are great to photograph, especially during sunrise. Another really awesome place is Kirby Cove, a little stone beach near the bridge, which is only accessible by foot. You can walk down there from the parking place at Battery Spencer and especially during sunrise it's one of the most beautiful places on earth.
Other great places for photography are the Painted Ladies, the bay area around Pier 39 towards Oakland Bay Bridge, Lombard Street and the streets around the cable cars in general, which offer a lot of great perspectives between the high buildings.
Another great place outside of the city is the Muir Woods National Monument, which is located north of the city. If you are getting there by car, I would recommend you to do this after enjoying the sunrise at Golden Gate Bridge, because you will have to pay every time you pass the bridge by car.